Marble and Railroads (1831-1860) continued
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As Rutland grew in population the Rutland Academy, later the Union High School, played an ever more important role in educating a population for a growing commercial and industrial economy.

The growing railroad activities caused a new downtown to develop nearer the railroad complex. This meant that new public and private buildings, including a new courthouse and post office, were built near the railroad and not adjoining the old town common.

A severe fire at the top of West Street hill in 1857 must have given opportunity and/or encouragement to many businesses to move from the old uptown to the new downtown. Heavy industries, such as the Rutland Foundry and Machine Company, began to locate in the immediate vicinity of the railroad.